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<2020年センター試験に登場した重要な英単語>

                            更新 2020/03/07(土)                             文責 炭本 治之  ・重要な単語とは   その単語の意味を知らないと,その英文の理解が困難という単語です。   下の問題文中の青字の単語が重要な単語です。  ・重要でない単語とは   (1)中学レベル単語,高校1年レベル単語,固有名詞,日本語の外来語になっている単語   (2)文脈からだいたいどんな意味かを推定できる単語     例としては,2020年では第3問A 問2の posture があります。   ある単語が重要かどうかは,単なる出現頻度だけでは判断できません。   現在のAI技術でも判断できません。   人が英文を読んでそれぞれの単語について判断する必要があります。。  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------            英 語(筆記)           (解答番号[1]〜[54]) 第1問 次の問い(A・B)に答えよ。(配点14) A 次の問い(問1〜3)において,下線部の発音がほかの三つと異なるものを,そ れぞれ下の@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。 問1 [1] @ scarce A scenery B scratch C scream   ~~   ~~   ~~   ~~ 問2 [2] @ arise A desire B loose C resemble   ~   ~   ~   ~ 問3 [3] @ accuse A cube B cucumber C cultivate   ~   ~   ~   ~ B 次の問い(問1〜4)において,第一アクセント(第一強勢)の位置がほかの三つ と異なるものを,それぞれ下の@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。 問1 [4] @ allergy A objective B physical C strategy 問2 [5] @ alcohol A behavior B consider C magnetic 問3 [6] @ canal A instance B island C workshop 問4 [7] @ administer A beneficial B competitor C democracy 第2問 次の問い(A〜C)に答えよ。(配点 47) A 次の問い(問1〜10)の[8]〜[17]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,そ れぞれ下の@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。ただし,[15]〜[17]につい ては,( A )と( B )に入れるのに最も適当な組合せを選べ。 問1 Due to the rain, our performance in the game was [8] from perfect. @ apart A different B far C free 問2 Emergency doors can be found at [9] ends of this hallway. @ both A each B either C neither 問3 My plans for studying abroad depend on [10] I can get a scholarship. @ that A what B whether C which 問4 Noriko can speak Swahili and [11] can Marco. A also A as B so C that 問5 To say you will go jogging every day is one thing, but to do it is [12] @ another A one another B the other C the others 問6 Our boss is a hard worker, but can be difficult to get [13]. @ along with A around to B away with C down to 問7 When Ayano came to my house, [14] happened that nobody was at home home. @ it A something B there C what 問8 We'll be able to get home on time as ( A ) as the roads are ( B ). [15] @ A : far B : blocked A A : far B : clear B A : long B : blocked C A : long B : clear 問9 I know you said you weren't going to the sports festival, but it is an important event, so please ( A ) it a ( B ) thought. [16] @ A : give B : first A A : give B : second B A : take B : first C A : take B : second 問10 I didn't recognize ( A ) of the guests ( B ) the two sitting in the back row. [17] @ A : any B : except for A A : any B : rather than B A : either B : except for C A : either B : rather than B 次の問い(問1〜3)において,それぞれ下の@〜Eの語句を並べかえて空所を 補い,最も適当な文を完成させよ。解答は[18]〜[23]に入れるものの番 号のみを答えよ。 問1 Tony: Those decorations in the hall took great, don't they? I'm glad we finished on time. Mei: Yes, thank you so much. Without your help, the preparations ___________ [18] ___________ ___________ [19] _________ all the guests arrive this afternoon. @ been A by B completed C have D the time E would not 問2 Ichiro: Mr. Smith has two daughters in school now, right? Natasha: Actually, he has three, the ___________ [20] ___________ ___________ [21] ___________ London. I don't think you've met her yet. @ in A is studying B music C of D whom E youngest 問3 Peter: It might rain this weekend, so I wonder if we should still have the class barbecue in the park. Hikaru: Yeah, we have to decide now whether to hold it ___________ [22] ___________ ___________ [23] ___________ until some day next week. We should have thought about the chance of rain. @ as A it B off C or D planned E put C 次の問い(問1〜3)の会話が最も適当なやりとりとなるように[24]〜 [26]を埋めるには。(A)と(B)をどのように組み合わせればよいか,それぞれ下 の@〜Eのうちから一つずつ選べ。 問1 Chisato: I heard a new amusement park will be built in our neighborhood. Luke: Really? That will be great for the kids in our area. Chisato: Yes, but nobody is happy about the increased traffic near their houses. Luke: But [24] young people. It will definitely have a positive economic effect on our city. (A) accroding to (A) it will create less (A) for the experts, noise → → (B) thanks to the (B) it will create more (B) in neighbors jobs @ (A) → (A) → (A) A (A) → (A) → (B) B (A) → (B) → (A) C (A) → (B) → (B) D (B) → (A) → (A) E (B) → (A) → (B) F (B) → (B) → (A) G (B) → (B) → (B) 問2 Yu: I heard Emma is planning to quit her full-time job. Lee: Yeah, she's going to start her own company. Yu: Wow! Her husband must be angry because they need money for their new house. Lee: Very much so. But [25] to Emma's plan. They always support each other in the end. (A) although (A) he is quite upset, (A) he does'nt object → → (B) because (B) he isn't so upset, (B) he objects @ (A) → (A) → (A) A (A) → (A) → (B) B (A) → (B) → (A) C (A) → (B) → (B) D (B) → (A) → (A) E (B) → (A) → (B) F (B) → (B) → (A) G (B) → (B) → (B) 問3 Kenjiro: Why are there fire trucks in front of the school? Ms. Sakamoto: It's because there is a fire drill scheduled for this morning. Kenjiro: Again? We just had one last semester. I already know what to do. Ms. Sakamoto: Even if you think you do, the drill is [26] help each other in case of a disaster. We should take it seriously. (A) essential (A) even so (A) we can → → (B) meaningless (B) so that (B) we cannot @ (A) → (A) → (A) A (A) → (A) → (B) B (A) → (B) → (A) C (A) → (B) → (B) D (B) → (A) → (A) E (B) → (A) → (B) F (B) → (B) → (A) G (B) → (B) → (B) 第3問 次の問い(A・B)に答えよ。(配点 33) A 次の問い(問1〜3)のパラグラフ(段落)には,まとまりをよくするために取り, 除いた方がよい文が一つある。取り除く文として最も適当なものを,それぞれ下 線部@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選ぺ。 問1 [27] In the early history of the NBA, the biggest professional basketball league in North America, the games were often low scoring and, as a result, not always exciting. @A prime example was a game between the Lakers and the Pistons in 1950. The result of the game was a 19-18 win for the Pistons. These games frustrated fans of the day, and this became a major motivation to introduce a new rule to increase scoring: a 24-second limit for each shot. AThe pressure of the time limit caused players to miss their shots more often. BAfter much discussion, the rule was first used in an official game on October 30, 1954. CEver since, individual teams have often scored over 100 points in a game. This simple change made the game more exciting and saved the league. 問2 [28] You might have been told, "Sit up straight or you'll get a backache." But is it true? People have long assumed that posture has played some role in back pain. Surprisingly, the evidence from research linking posture and backache may be weak. @Our back is naturally curved―from the side it is S-shaped. AIndividuals have their own unique bone sizes that determine their body shapes. BIt has been thought that good posture meant straightening out some of the curves. CAccording to a study examining doctors' opinions, it was found that there was no single agreed-upon standard of proper posture. One researcher even says that often changing your posture, especially when sitting, is more important for preventing back pain. The main source of back pain may be stress and lack of sleep, not the way someone is sitting. 問3 [29] One of the most important features in the development of civilization was the preservation of food. Preserving pork legs as ham is one such example. Today, many countries in the world produce ham, but when and where did it begin? @Many credit the Chinese with being the first people to record salting raw pork, while others have cited the Gauls, ancient people who lived in western parts of Europe. AAnother common seasoning is pepper, which works just as well in the preservation of food. BIt seems almost certain that it was a well-established practice by the Roman period. CA famous politician in ancient Rome wrote extensively about the "salting of hams" as early as 160 B.C. Regardless of the origin, preserved foods like ham helped human culture to evolve and are deeply rooted in history. B 次の会話は,慈善活動の企画に関して大学生たちが行ったやりとりの一部であ る。[30]〜[32]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ下の@〜Cの うちから一つずつ選べ。 Akira: Hey, guys. Thanks for dropping in. I've asked you all to meet here today to come up with ideas about how to raise money for our annual charity event. We'll have about a month this summer to earn as much as we can. Any thoughts? Teresa: How about doing odd jobs around the neighborhood? Akira: What's that? I've never heard of it. Jenna: Oh, I guess it's not common here in Japan. It can be anything, you know, doing stuff around the house like cutting the grass, washing the windows, or cleaning out the garage. When I was a high school student back in the US, I made 300 dollars one summer by doing yard work around the neighborhood. And sometimes people will ask you to run around town for them to pick up the dry cleaning or do the grocery shopping. It's a pretty typical way for young people to earn some extra money. Akira: So, Jenna, you're saying that [30]? @ cleaning up the yard is quite valuable work A dividing housework among the family is best B doing random jobs is a way to make money C gardening will surely be profitable in the US Jenna: Yeah. I think that it could work in Japan, too. Rudy: Here, many students do part-time jobs for local businesses. They might work at a restaurant or convenience store. Odd jobs are different. You're more like a kind of helper. It's a casual style of working. You get paid directly by the people you help, not a company. And you can decide which jobs you want to do. Maya: But isn't it dangerous? Usually, people are unwilling to enter a house of someone they don't know. And what happens if you don't get paid? How can you get the money you earned? Rudy: Not all jobs are inside the house. You can choose the kind of work that you're comfortable with. In my experience, I never got cheated. Basically, we work for people in our own community, so we sort of know them. Often, they are older people who have lived in the neighborhood a long time. And I always got paid in cash, so I was excited to have money to spend. Teresa: There are a lot of seniors in our community. I'm sure they'd be happy to have someone do the heavy lifting, or even just to see a friendly face around. I really doubt that they would take advantage of us. In general, don't you think most people are honest and kind? Akira: It sounds like we shouldn't be too worried because [31]. @ elderly people would feel uneasy about our work A it's embarrassing to ask our neighbors for work B there's little risk in working within our community C we can be safe if we work for a company in town Dan: Is it OK to get paid for volunteer work? Shouldn't we work for elderly people out of the goodness of our hearts? I think helping people is its own reward. Kana: If we explain our purpose clearly from the beginning, to raise money for the charity, I think people will be glad to help us. And it's not like we're charging 5,000 yen per hour. Why don't we suggest 500 yen per hour? It's a lot more reasonable than asking some company to do the job. Maya: Don't you have to pay any taxes? What happens if the government finds out? Jenna: I don't think we're breaking any laws. That's the way it works in the US, anyway. Just to be on the safe side, though, let's ask someone at the city tax office. Akira: OK, thanks for all of your great ideas. I think we made a lot of progress. According to the suggestions made today, it looks like our next step is to [32]. Right? @ consider being totally honest with each other A look for part-time jobs that have high wages B provide useful services for free to neighbors C think of a plan that works for our local area Jenna: Sounds good. 第4問 次の問い(A・B)に答えよ。(配点 40) A 次の文章はある説明文の一部である。この文章を読み。下の問い(問1〜4)の [33]〜[36]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ下の@〜Cのうち から一つずつ選べ。 Sports coaches and players are interested in how training programs can be designed to enhance performance. The order of practice potentially facilitates learning outcomes without increasing the amount of practice. A study was conducted to examine how different training schedules influence throwing performance. In this study, elementary school students threw a tennis ball at a target laid on the floor. They threw the ball from three throwing locations at distances of 3, 4, and 5 meters from the target. The target consisted of the center (20 cm wide) and nine larger outer rings. They served as zones to indicate the accuracy of the throws. If the ball landed in the center of the target, 100 points were given. If the ball landed in one of the outer zones, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, or 10 points were recorded accordingly. If the ball landed outside of the target, no points were given. If the ball landed on a line separating two zones, the higher score was awarded. The students were assigned to one of three practice groups: Blocked, Random, or Combined. All students were instructed to use an overarm throwing motion to try to hit the center of the target with the ball. On the first day of this study, they each completed a total of 81 practice throws. Students in the Blocked group threw 27 times from one of the three throwing locations, followed by 27 throws from the next location, and ended practice with 27 throws from the final location. In the Random group, each student threw the ball 81 times in the order of throwing locations that the researchers had specified. No more than two consecutive throws were allowed from the same location for this group. In the Combined group, the students started with a blocked schedule and gradually shifted to a random schedule. On the next day, all students completed a performance test of 12 throws. Results showed that during the practice of 81 throws, the Blocked group performed worse than the other two groups. Performance test scores were also analyzed. The Combined group showed the best performance among the three groups, followed by the Random group and then by the Blocked group. It is still uncertain if similar results can be obtained for adults in training programs for other throwing actions, such as those seen in bowling, baseball, and basketball. This will be addressed in the following section. (Esmaeel Saemi 他(2012) Practicing Along the Contextual Interference Continuum: A Comparison of Three Practice Schedules in an Elementary Physical Education Setting の一部を参考に作成) 問1 What is the total score achieved by the five throws in this figure? [33] @ 200 A 210 B 220 C 230 問2 Which of the following statements is true about the experiment? [34] @ Eighty-one throws were made from the same initial throwing location in the Blocked group. A The distance from the target remained unchanged during the entire experiment for the Combined group. B The set of throws from the same location involved various ways of throwing for the Combined group. C Throwing three or more times in a row from the same location was against the rules for the Random group. 問3 Which of the following statements is true about the results? [35] @ The Blocked group had the best score both during practice and on the performance test. A The Blocked group showed the worst score among the three groups on the performance test. B The Combined group showed lower accuracy than the Random group on the performance test. C The Random group had the lowest accuracy both during practice and on the performance test. 問4 What will most likely be discussed next in this report? [36] @ Mental imagery training of underhand throws A Observation of younger students' movements B Overarm throws with eyes closed C Various kinds of throwing motions B 次のページにあるフリーマーケットの出店申請の説明を読み,次の問い(問 1〜4)の[37]〜[40]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ下の @〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。 問1 Fran will sell her handmade jewelry on both days. She needs only a small space. How much will it cost? [37] @ $14 A $16 B $18 C $20 問2 Pat wants to sell some big household items, including a refrigerator, so she needs an outdoor space. What offer can she take advantage of? [38] @ Free assistance in setting up her tent A Full cash refund due to cancelation B Selection of the location of her space C Use of a large truck free of charge 問3 Mark makes herbal soaps and candles. He has chosen an indoor space. Which of the following will he be allowed to do? [39] @ Choose a space close to the sink to get water easily A Have a bowl of water for customers to try his soaps B Keep his pet hamsters in a cage at his booth C Let his customers light some sample candles 問4 Which of the following is true about this flea market? [40] @ People are discouraged from selling items they created. A People can throw away anything in the same trash can. B The organizers choose applicants who apply for both days. C The organizers provide information about schedule updates. Greenly Fall Flea Market We are now accepting applications for the Fall Flea Market at Greenly Sports Center! Please bring your used and/or handmade goods. We have only a limited number of spaces and accept applications in order of arrival, so email your application soon. We are a pet-friendly market, but if you are planning to bring your pet, you must apply for an outdoor space. For outdoor spaces, the organizers will help set up tents for no extra charge. Trucks are available for additional fees if you need to transport your goods. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Saturday, October 3rd Sunday, October 4th (13:00-17:00) (10:00-15:00) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Indoor space $8 $10 (2 × 2 meters) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Outdoor space $9 $11 (4 × 4 meters) ------------------------------------------------------------------ > Water is available for indoor spaces. > If you apply for both Saturday and Sunday, you'll get a $2 discount each day. Keep in Mind 1. Location of the spaces is decided by the organizers. No requests or changes are possible. 2. Any changes in opening and closing times are announced two days in advance. 3. If you cancel your application, 80% of all fees will be refunded. 4. Garbage must be separated and put into the appropriate garbage cans at the end of each day. 5. Fires and open flames are prohibited. 第5問 次の文章を読み,下の問い(問1〜5)の[41]〜[45]に入れるのに 最も適当なものを,それぞれ下の@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。(配点 30) A couple of weeks ago, I was hiking with my dog on a mountain when something unexpected happened and I lost sight of him. I looked and looked but couldn't find him. He had been with me for so long that it was like I was missing part of my soul. Ever since that day, I had a strange feeling. It was beyond sadness ― a feeling that I didn't quite understand, as if something were pulling me to go back to the mountain. So every chance I got, I grabbed my backpack to see if the mountain could offer me some sense of relief. One sunny morning, I stood at the foot of the mountain. Something felt different this day. "Please forgive me," I said out loud. "I'll find you!" I took a deep breath and began my journey with this mysterious pull growing stronger. After making my way along paths I thought I knew well, I realized I was somehow in an unfamiliar place. I panicked a little, lost my footing, and slipped. From out of nowhere, an elderly man came running towards me and helped me up. Looking at his gentle, smiling face, I felt a sense of ease. The old man said he was looking for a way to the top of the mountain, so we decided to climb together. Soon the path began to feel familiar again. We talked about many things, including my dog. I told him that he was a German shepherd. When he was younger, he served briefly as a police dog but had to stop due to an injury. The man let out a laugh saying he had been a police officer for a short time, but he quit. He didn't say why. Later, he spent a long time as a bodyguard. He also had German roots. We laughed at these similarities. Before we knew it, we reached a large open area and took a break. I told the man what had happened to my dog. "He had a tiny bell on his collar to scare away bears. We came to this very spot and saw a bear. It was looking back at us. I should have held my dog because, sensing danger, he chased after the bear. I couldn't find him after that. I should have been more careful." As I was telling the story, the man's expression changed. "It wasn't your fault. Your dog just wanted to keep you safe," he said. "I'm sure Tomo would want to tell you this. Also, thank you for not giving up." Tomo is my dog's name. Did I tell him this? The old man's comment rang in the air. ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ Before I could ask anything, the man proposed we hurry to get to the top of the mountain. I was planning to do this with my dog a few weeks ago. After two more hours of hiking, we reached the peak. I set down my backpack and we sat taking in the magnificent view. The old man looked at me and said, "Mountains offer truly magical experiences." I looked around for a place to rest. I guess I was pretty tired, because I fell asleep right away. When I woke up, I noticed that the old man had disappeared. I waited, but he never returned. Suddenly, in the sunlight, something caught my eye. I walked over and saw a small metal tag beside my backpack. It was the same silver name tag that my parents originally gave to my dog. Tomo it said. It was then that I heard a familiar noise behind me. It was the ringing of a tiny bell. I turned around. What I saw caused so many emotions to rush over me. After a while on the mountaintop, I attached the name tag to my old friend and carefully made my way home with the mountain's gift beside me. My soul felt very much complete. 問1 The author kept returning to the mountain because [41] @ she felt an urge she couldn't explain A she planned to meet the elderly man B she thought she could practice magic C she wanted to find out about the bear 問2 Which of the following happened first on the author's most recent trip? [42] @ She arrived at a large open area. A She climbed to the mountaintop. B She saw a bear running away. C She was assisted by an old man. 問3 What similarity between the author's dog and the old man was talked about? [43] @ They experienced workplace injuries. A They recently lost close family friends. B They were acquaintances of the author. C They worked to help protect the public. 問4 Which of the following is closest to the meaning of the underlined phrase rang in the air as used in the text? [44] @ brought happiness A left an impression B made a loud noise C seemed offensive 問5 How did the author's feelings change over the course of the last hiking experience? [45] @ She was depressed and then became sadder. A She was determined and then became comforted. B She was hopeful but then became homesick. C She was miserable but then became entertained. 第6問 次の文章を読み,下の問い(A・B)に答えよ。なお,文章の左にある(1)〜 (6)はパラグラフ(段落)の番号を表している。(配点 36) (1) Vending machines are so common in Japan that you can find one almost anywhere you go. Some of these machines sell train or meal tickets, and others sell snacks or drinks. They are especially useful for people who want to get something quickly and conveniently. (2) While vending machines are found throughout the country today, they were not originally developed in Japan. It is generally believed that the first one was constructed by a Greek mathematics teacher about 2,200 years ago. This machine sold special water used in prayers at temples. People who wanted to purchase the water put in a coin, which hit a metal lever attached to a string. Then, the weight of the coin let a specific amount of water pour out until the coin fell off. This ensured that people received an equal portion of the special water, (3) About 1,000 years ago, a vending machine that sold pencils was developed in China. Later, in the 1700s, coin-operated tobacco boxes appeared in English bars. When people wanted the product sold by one of these boxes, they inserted a coin and turned a lever. The product then dropped down for the customer to pick up. However, it was not until the 1880s that vending machines spread around the world. In 1883, an English inventor created one that sold postcards and paper. This became popular, and soon vending machines selling paper, stamps, and other goods appeared in many countries. In 1904, vending machines came into service in Japan. In 1926, technology had advanced and machines could be set to sell products with different prices. After that, a wider variety of products were sold. When this happened, the vending machine industry expanded rapidly. (4) The greatest problem faced by the global vending machine industry in its expansion was not the use of coins; it was paper money. This was a challenge as it proved easy for dishonest individuals to make money that could fool machines. This forced the vending machine industry to establish better detection methods and was one reason countries took steps to develop money that was difficult to counterfeit. Now, vending machines have become technologically advanced, not only to prevent problems with cash but also to accept credit cards and more recent forms of electronic payment, (5) It is in Japan that vending machines have become most popular. Currently, Japan has more than 4. 2 million vending machines, with about 55% of them selling beverages such as tea, coffee, and juice. One of the main reasons Japan has become the vending machine capital of the world is its overall level of safety. Unlike many places, where vending machines must be monitored to prevent theft, they can be placed virtually anywhere in Japan. This extraordinary degree of public safety is considered amazing by visitors, as well as the range of products available. Tourists often take pictures of machines that sell unexpected products like bananas, fresh eggs, and bags of rice. It is understandable that visitors see them as one aspect particular to Japanese culture, (6) Given the popularity and usefulness of vending machines, it is unlikely that they will disappear anytime in the near future. They provide a place where various goods can be sold without the need for a sales clerk. The next time you want to purchase a hot drink on a cold day, remember that, in Japan at least, there is probably a vending machine just around the next corner. A 次の問い(問1〜5)の[46]〜[50]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,そ れぞれ下の@〜Cのうちから一つずつ選べ。 問1 According to paragraph (2), what was the first vending machine capable of doing? [46] @ Allowing people to acquire a fixed amount of liquid from it A Offering books of ancient Greek mathematical principles B Permitting visitors to enter temples when they wanted to pray C Providing a regular income to the person who created it 問2 According to paragraph (3), which of the following statements about vending machines is true? [47] @ An English inventor's vending machine sold goods at various prices. A Sales by vending machines increased when high value coins appeared. B Vending machine technology was found in Asia many centuries ago. C Vending machines were common in the world by the 18th century. 問3 Which of the following is closest to the meaning of the underlined word counterfeit in paragraph (4)? [48] @ accept illegal exchanges A create unauthorized imitations B restrict unapproved technology C withdraw unnecessary support 問4 According to paragraph (5), what is true about vending machines in Japan? [49] @ Foreign tourists hesitate to make purchases from them. A Over three quarters of them sell a variety of drinks. B The highly safe products sold in them attract customers. C The variety of items makes them unique in the world. 問5 What would be the best title for this passage? [50] @ The Cultural Benefits of Vending Machines in Japanese Society A The Development of Vending Machines From Historical Perspectives B The Economic Impact of Vending Machines by International Comparison C The Globalization of Vending Machines Through Modern Technology B 次の表は,本文のパラグラフ(段落)の構成と内容をまとめたものである。 [51]〜[54]に入れるのに最も適当なものを,下の@〜Cのうちから一つ ずつ選び。表を完成させよ。ただし。同じものを繰り返し選んではいけない。 --------------------------------- Paragraph Content --------------------------------- (1) Introduction (2) [51] (3) [52] (4) [53] (5) [54] (6) Conclusion --------------------------------- @ A certain factor that has allowed vending machines to exist widely in one country A Creation of one vending machine and a description of how the device was used B Difficulties in building vending machines after introducing a different form of money C Types of vending machine goods sold at different locations in the past (終わり) ページの先頭へ